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Some frameworks of HR

July 23, 2010 Leave a comment

HR Framework

Various Human Resource Development frameworks have come into existence in different forms and structures from different parts of world as a result of R&D on this subject. An Integrated HRD Systems Approach was evolved for Indian organizations at IIM, Ahmadabad by Pareek and Rao in 1975.

Pareek and Rao Framework(1975)

According to the framework Performance Appraisal, Potential Appraisal, Feedback and Counseling, Career Development- Career planning and Training & Development get distinct attention  as unique parts of an integrated system. The consultants differentiated HRD from other components of HRF. They recommended that HRF is to remain as a sub system of HRD and it’s integration with other two sub systems (personnel and administration and worker’s affair)   is to be done by the person at director level. For example Vice president Personnel and HRD.

In totality the Integrated HRD Systems Approach has the following elements

1> A separate and differentiated HR department with full time HRD staff.

2>6 HRD subsystems including OD.

3>Inter linkages between various subsystems.

4>The whole thing is based on 14 basic principles.

The Strategic HR Framework Approach by Ulrich and Lake(1990)

Business strategy, Organizational Capabilities and HR Practices are the three important element in this framework. They presented a frame work for HR professionals in terms of four key roles : 1> Management of strategic HR, 2>Management of firm infrastructure, 3>Management of the employee contribution and 4> Management of  transformation and change.

The activities for managing strategic HR includes aligning HR and business strategy, organizational diagnosis i:e  reengineering organizational processes, shared services i:e listening and responding to employees and ensuring capacity for change.

The Integrative Framework  by Yeung and Berma(1997)

They identifies three paths through which HR practices can contribute to business performances.

1> Building organizational capabilities.

2> Improving employee satisfaction.

3> Shaping customer and shareholder satisfaction.

Human capital Appraisal Approach by Friedman(1998)

According to this framework there are five stages in the management of  human capital 1. clarification stage, 2. assessment stage, 3. design stage, 4. implementation stage and 5. monitoring stage.

There are five areas of human capital management 1. recruitment, retention and retirement, 2. rewards and performance, 3. career development, succession planning and training, 4. organizational structure and 5. human capital enabler.

A 5×5 matrix using this stages and areas can be used to evaluate and manage the human capital.

HRD score card Approach by Rao (1999)

It says that HR interventions in order to make right business impact should be mature in terms of HRD system, competencies, culture and business linkages. They are assessed through a well formulated HRD audit.

P-CMM Approach by Curtis and team(1995)

The People Capability Maturity Model was developed for software organizations. The strategic objective of this framework  is

1> Improving capability of the organizations by increasing capabilities of  the workforce.

2> Ensuring that a perticular capability is an attribute of an organization rather than that of a few individuals.

3>Aligning the motivation of individuals with that of the organization.

4> Retaining  human assets i;e people with critical knowledge and skill.

Some frameworks of HR

Various Human Resource Development frameworks have come into existence in different forms and structures from different parts of world as a result of R&D on this subject. An Integrated HRD Systems Approach was evolved for Indian organizations at IIM, Ahmadabad by Pareek and Rao in 1975.

Pareek and Rao Framework(1975)

According to the framework Performance Appraisal, Potential Appraisal, Feedback and Counseling, Career Development- Career planning and Training & Development get distinct attention  as unique parts of an integrated system. The consultants differentiated HRD from other components of HRF. They recommended that HRF is to remain as a sub system of HRD and it’s integration with other two sub systems (personnel and administration and worker’s affair)   is to be done by the person at director level. For example Vice president Personnel and HRD.

In totality the Integrated HRD Systems Approach has the following elements

1> A separate and differentiated HR department with full time HRD staff.

2>6 HRD subsystems including OD.

3>Inter linkages between various subsystems.

4>The whole thing is based on 14 basic principles.

The Strategic HR Framework Approach by Ulrich and Lake(1990)

Business strategy, Organizational Capabilities and HR Practices are the three important element in this framework. They presented a frame work for HR professionals in terms of four key roles : 1> Management of strategic HR, 2>Management of firm infrastructure, 3>Management of the employee contribution and 4> Management of  transformation and change.

The activities for managing strategic HR includes aligning HR and business strategy, organizational diagnosis i:e  reengineering organizational processes, shared services i:e listening and responding to employees and ensuring capacity for change.

The Integrative Framework  by Yeung and Berma(1997)

They identifies three paths through which HR practices can contribute to business performances.

1> Building organizational capabilities.

2> Improving employee satisfaction.

3> Shaping customer and shareholder satisfaction.

Human capital Appraisal Approach by Friedman(1998)

According to this framework there are five stages in the management of  human capital 1. clarification stage, 2. assessment stage, 3. design stage, 4. implementation stage and 5. monitoring stage.

There are five areas of human capital management 1. recruitment, retention and retirement, 2. rewards and performance, 3. career development, succession planning and training, 4. organizational structure and 5. human capital enabler.

A 5×5 matrix using this stages and areas can be used to evaluate and manage the human capital.

HRD score card Approach by Rao (1999)

It says that HR interventions in order to make right business impact should be mature in terms of HRD system, competencies, culture and business linkages. They are assessed through a well formulated HRD audit.

P-CMM Approach by Curtis and team(1995)

The People Capability Maturity Model was developed for software organizations. The strategic objective of this framework  is

1> Improving capability of the organizations by increasing capabilities of  the workforce.

2> Ensuring that a perticular capability is an attribute of an organization rather than that of a few individuals.

3>Aligning the motivation of individuals with that of the organization.

4> Retaining  human assets i;e people with critical knowledge and skill.

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Categories: HR Practices

Brief History of Human Resource Management in India

July 23, 2010 4 comments

Though not infant, HRD in India has not entered in it’s adulthood. The first dedicated HRD department started in 1975 at L&T.  Uday Pareek and T.V Rao in 1975 outlined a philosophy for the new HRD System . After L&T accepted and started implementing their recommendations in full the State Bank of India  the single  largest bank and it’s associates decided to implement the Integrated HRD System approach and decided to create a new HRD department. By the mid 80’s a large number of organizations in India had established fully fledged HRD departments .In 1979 the first workshop on HRD was conducted by IIM A by Dr. T.V.Rao , where the draft of the book Designing and managing Human Resource  System  was presented and tested.  After that a large number of companies started showing interest in having HRD departments.

However over the period of time HRD as a concept and practice have gone through different stages of metamorphosis. In the mid-70s HRD departments were started with a view to promote competence-building and work motivation. The need was fulfilled to a large extent by the late 80’s. By the early 90’s, the focus of  HRD changed from HR for it’s own sake to HR for business. Today in globally competitive market it’s presence and role is well understood.

HRD defined in different parts of the world

Len Nadler, USA defined it as a series of organized activities conducted within a specified period of time  and designed to produce behavioural change. Common activities in HRD include Training , Education  and development. Training to improve job performances, education to improve competency not specific to any one job and development as preparation to help the employee move with the organization as it develops.

China believes it as a planned and organized education and learning process to improve employees knowledge and skill as well as change their job attitude and behaviour.

Germany, there is no specified field defined as HRD.

The concept of HRD in Japan identified in three terms

  • development of individual abilities,
  • formulation level of mastery over human resources through the work system and training, and
  • human resource development through management of human resource process. In short individual development, carrier development and organization development are the three major areas  HRD covered in Japan.

 In Korea it is training and development.

Themes we must discuss while discussing Human Resource Management

360 degree feedback Change management Leadership and leadership development System building Workplace Learning
Action learning Culture building Mentoring and modeling Performance appraisal Transfer of learning
Career development Knowledge management Commitment building Strategic human performance processes Organizational development etc…etc
Categories: HR Practices